It is difficult to overestimate the relevance of the study of the actual nutrition of students of higher education institutions, as nutrition is the most important component of healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to perform hygienic assessment of the medical university students’ daily dietary intake. The study involved 1200 students of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years at the department of general medicine, pediatric department and dental department. The method of studying actual nutrition with the help of an electronic food diary, where the subjects entered information about the foods consumed during the day, was chosen to record actual nutrition facts. Data processing showed that the daily nutritional intake of students at all the studied faculties was characterized by reduced caloric content, reduced intake of nutritional substances, lack of systematization of meals and eating mainly in the evening. Thus, hygienic assessment of the medical students’ daily dietary intake revealed shortcomings in the organization of nutrition of this population group, which should be eliminated in order to preserve and improve the health of future specialists. In subsequent studies, one would need to assess the nutrition of different gender groups in order to trace the emerging nutritional stereotypes in groups of young men and women, taking into account the differences in age and the chosen specialty.
The issue of organizing the teaching of hygiene considering specialization of the medical university faculties is relevant in the context of digitalization. Proficiency in digital skill determines the modern professional physician’s competitiveness. The paper provides analysis of the use of digital technologies to study the relevant issues of hygiene. Educational process at the Department of General Hygiene of the Voronezh State Medical University is built on the principle of uniformity and consistency. Professional educational trajectory, including that on digital platforms, considers the teaching continuity, from fundamental theoretical subjects to clinical and specialized ones. Within the framework of educational process, issues of special hygiene, such as specifics of structure and use of medical institutions, features of professional activity of physicians of various specialties, are considered. Conventional methods to teach hygiene are supplemented with the differentially used innovative teaching techniques. The business game method is successfully used by the future clinicians to master the topic “Food Poisoning”. The method of creating educational videos for visual demonstration of laboratory work can be used in distant learning. The digital learning method demonstrates the possibility of using advanced digital devices and internet-based technologies in preventive medicine. It seems necessary to further improve the educational process at all the faculties as educational and professional standards, as well as the academic passport for Hygiene, are updated.
It is well-known that investigation of the features of incidence among children and adolescents in certain human environment aimed at identification of promising prevention vectors in the region is a priority in the development of healthcare system and the state’s social policy. The study was aimed to explore the regional features of the pediatric population health in the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). A retrospective analytical study was conducted; the values and structure of incidence in children and adolescents in 11 FEFD regions were assessed. It was found that classes X (Diseases of the respiratory system) and XIX (Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes) occupied the leading places in the structure of the long-term average annual incidence by disease classes in FEFD among children aged 0–14 and adolescents aged 15–17. The lowest incidence was reported for class III (Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism). Significant differences in the long-term average annual levels of the studied indicator between age groups in FEFD and significant differences from the all-Russian values were revealed. The findings can be used to predict the health status of the younger generation and determine the strategic direction of healthcare system in the macroregion.
This article is a review of data published in Russian and foreign studies that reflect current problems concerning content of carbon dioxide in spaces of residential and public buildings, including children's educational organizations. We consider: mechanisms of action of high concentrations of carbon dioxide on the human body, which manifests as acute and delayed disruptions of metabolic processes in circulatory, central and respiratory systems; existing carbon dioxide content measurement methods used for indoor spaces; principles of setting microclimate and air quality standards for temporarily and constantly occupied indoor spaces and the respective parameter control principles. This analytical review revealed the need for standard-setting efforts, development and approval of a methodology enabling measurement of the actual carbon dioxide concentration in children's educational institutions, since routine measures adopted for the purpose lack in effectiveness or realization, which prevents normalization and stabilization of all qualitative and quantitative air parameters at the levels making the environment of a classroom safe and optimal for education-related activities given high occupancy of the space.
Excess weight and obesity detected in adolescence are likely to be detected in adulthood, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The study was aimed to assess the features of cardiovascular system parameters in adolescent males considering their body mass index (BMI). For this purpose a total of 208 adolescent males aged 15–16 were surveyed. The major indicators of physical development and cardiovascular system function were evaluated by standard method. BMI was calculated, based on which three groups were distinguished: underweight adolescents, adolescents with normal and excess body weight. It was found that 23% of subjects were underweight, 62% had normal body weight, and excess body weight was reported in 15% of adolescents. It has been shown that the growth of strain on the cardiovascular system from the group of underweight adolescents to the group with excess weight is observed (4, 16, and 37%, respectively), which is confirmed by the correlation analysis results. The findings suggest the less effective cardiovascular system functioning mode in overweight adolescents compared to other assessed groups. The data obtained can be used to develop the guidelines on managing excess body weigth in the group of individuals being through the adolescent ontogeny period as a target group for health promotion and applying preventive measures.
The paper provides the analysis of the research and practical work done at the Department of Hygiene, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, for the period between 2018 and 2023 aimed to determine the today’s directions of the Department and demonstrate their relevance, scientific and practical significance; prospective directions of further research are defined. Statistical data processing was performed using the Statistica 13 PL software and the tag (word) cloud service. Staff of the Department did extensive educational and methodological, organizational and methodological, expert and consulting, research work (paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 of the academic passport for the specialty 3.2.1. “Hygiene”); a total of 10 textbooks and three toolkits, three guidelines, two software products, one patent for invention and 39 database certificates, 11 collective monographs were published; two hygienic standards were approved; the activity outcomes were presented during 95 scientific and practical events, including that with international involvement. A total of 150 articles were published: 46 in the journals indexed in international databases (Scopus, Web of Science), 58 in the journals indexed by HAC under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, one in the Nature journal. Two candidate and two doctoral theses on the specialty 3.2.1. “Hygiene” were prepared and defended. The activity outcomes provided helped to address the hygienic challenges currently faced by professional community to achieve the national goals of the Russian Federation in the fields of demography, public health and digitalization.
The issue of protecting reproductive health is closely related to the childen’s and adolescents’ awareness of the negative impact of early sexual activity and pregnancy, as well as sexually transmitted diseases. At the same time, awareness of parents involved in raising children is poorly understood. The study was aimed to estimate the parents’ competence (awareness) in the field of children’s sexual and hygienic education by conducting a webinar and an online questionnaire survey. Parents were surveyed in 2022–2023. A psychologist conducted the webinar, after which the online questionnaire survey was carried out in order to assess the effectiveness of the webinar as a relevant tool to improve the parents’ competence. It was found that almost all parents believed it was necessary to discuss the issue of sexual education with children, however, among them only 64.4% actually addressed the issue. Parents had no consensus on the age of starting sexual education in children. The main difficulties in communication with children were shyness, insufficient knowledge and the lack of methods to inform the child. According to 91% of women and 66% of men, the webinar conducted by psychologist was the best method to improve the parents’ competence. It appeared to be informative for 90% of parents. The joint efforts of parents, doctors, psychologists, and teachers are the solution to the problem of sexual and hygienic education. Furthermore, informational and educational work with parents and the family is important, since the child’s sexual and hygienic education is started since early age.