In modern society, smoking is one of the most common harmful habits. The issue of smoking among medical students and the ways to address it are particularly relevant. The study was aimed to identify the priority factors contributing to smoking as the main harmful habit. We performed a cross-sectional study of 254 students using the tailored questionnaire, D. Horn test, and Fagerstrom test. The data obtained were processed and analyzed using the mathematical statistics methods. The findings have shown that 68.4% of students are smokers. The majority of students report negative health effects of smoking: 45% of students complain of cough, 38% complain of mucus, 52% complain of the decrease in physical endurance. Furthermore, low motivation for smoking cessation has been revealed in the majority of respondents. Vaping turned out to be the smoking type most popular among students, and the majority of respondents believe that it is harmless. The identified predominant types of smoking behavior (“support”, “craving”) suggest emotional stress. The correlation between the students’ anxious emotional state and the frequency of smoking has been found (r = 0.79). Learning problems and emotional stress are the priority factors contributing to smoking as the main harmful habit of students. Thus, the issue of smoking should be considered both in medical-biological and socio-psychological aspects. It is important to shape health-saving behavior in students through hygienic training and education.
The information revolution and intensive development of electronic devices take place in the recent decades. Furthermore, not so long ago such a hygienic factor, as the display luminance pulse-width modulation (PWM) capable of causing visual discomfort (PWM symptoms) in individuals with increased sensitivity to visual load, has become relevant. The main complaints include eye pain, headache, sometimes nausea, up to the inability to use such screens. Moreover, this characteristic can be peculiar not only to LED (AMOLED, etc.), but also to IPS displays due to the presence of the LED backlight layer. No regulation of the issue has led to the emergence of online resources on PWM and the problem of visual impairment, where users verify the data on their own, which suggests the relevance of the subject selected. The paper reports theoretical aspects of PWM, technical characteristics of displays with PWM; the approaches to PWM measurement are described; the possible ways to reduce visual discomfort are discussed. Furthermore, the paper describes the method to measure PWM of displays using a photo camera with the exposure time set to 1/20 s, along with the method testing results. It has been shown that further research focused on assessing the effects of PWM on vision and the development of the method for hygienic assessment of monitors and smartphone screens with PWM are required.
Numerous studies conducted by domestic and foreign researchers report the influence of environmental pollution on shaping morbidity of a population. The study was aimed to rank the territories of the Voronezh Region by the incidence rates probably resulting from chemical pollution of atmospheric air, drinking water, soils in residential areas recorded in 2018–2022. The districts were divided into three groups based on the long-time annual average incidence rates. The degree of correlation between the disease entities and the chemical environmental factors was determined through correlation analysis. The findings have shown that the city of Voronezh and Pavlovsky District are the territories at risk of the disorders with the etiology that is likely to be associated with chemical air pollution. The territories at risk of the disorders that are likely to be associated with chemical pollution of drinking water include Kashirsky, Kantemirovsky, Olkhovatsky, Ternovsky, Khokholsky districts, while the territories at risk of the disorders that are likely to be associated with chemical pollution of soils in residential areas include the city of Voronezh, Borisoglebsky city district, Liskinsky and Rossoshansky districts. The situation observed in the above administrative territories requires in-depth study of the degree of the impact of chemical factors on public health and identification of the sources of these factors. The findings can be used to develop the guidelines on minimization of the adverse effects of chemical environmental factors on public health in the region.
Internet addiction is a behavioral problem that is rapidly growing increasingly widespread, especially among higher education students. This study aimed to profile psychophysiological characteristics of students at different levels of risk of developing behavior-modifying internet addiction. We invited 261 students and established their levels of internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, then formed two groups: group 1 — students showing no signs of internet addiction; group 2 — students prone to internet addiction. Students' mental and social health and quality of life were assessed. Compared to the participants from group 1, group 2 students were found to exhibit 1.7 times more intense compulsive symptoms, 1.5-fold stronger withdrawal and tolerance symptoms, and had intrapersonal/health issues and time management problems that were 1.3 and 1.4-fold more grave, respectively; all these factors contributed to their predisposition to internet addiction. The risk of internet addiction in group 2 externalized as greater irritability (1.5-fold higher than in group 1), resentment (1.4-fold higher), feelings of guilt and hostility (1.3-fold more intense), verbal aggression (1.2-fold), stress (1.3-fold), anxiety and negative emotional experiences (1.2-fold), and 1.2 times lower quality of life in terms of its psychological component. The resulting data suggest the need for prevention measures designed to reduce the risk of internet addiction through management of negative emotional states in students with the help of socio-psychological inventory.
The allergic diseases, the major role in etiology of which is played by allergens present in ambient air, are common. To develop practical guidelines on prevention of allergic rhinitis as the most prevalent disorder in the structure of allergy, it is necessary to estimate all the conditions, both negatively and positively affecting this disorder. The study was aimed to assess factors affecting the incidence, detection, and registration of cases of allergic rhinitis in the Voronezh Region. The report forms № 12 and № 30 provided substantive inputs to the study, along with the laboratory test data provided by private clinics and the social and hygienic monitoring data. Epidemiological analysis was performed by retrospective method; the territories were ranked by various indicators; the correlation analysis method was applied. We determined the incidence rates and the districts at high risk of allergic rhinitis (pollinosis) in all population groups for the period 2012–2021. We determined the structure of aeroallergens identified in private healthcare institutions, assessed the staffing levels of allergists in the public institutions of the Voronezh Region, and identified significant environmental factors. The identified features of the prevalence, diagnosis, and registration of allergic rhinitis in the Voronezh Region can be used to improve preventive measures targeting this allergic disorder.