Recently, the problem of psychological status of students, including university students, and its influence on the health of the individual has become very relevant. The applicants entering higher education institutions of our county face an especially difficult period. They have to deal with a lot of exams affecting their future destiny, the complicated process of adaptation to the new training conditions existing in the educational institutions, as well as with the completely unfamiliar team of teachers and students. The study was aimed to perform comparative analysis of psychological health of the students attending the medical university and to determine the indicators most strongly affecting the students’ quality of life and body’s condition. A total of 1050 first-year, third-year, and sixth-year students of the medical university were enrolled. Each subject was offered to voluntarily pass three different tests to determine his/her psychological status. The scores of functional reserve of the CNS below 50% were reported for more than one third of students of the pediatric faculty (39%). In students of the faculty of pediatrics, the decreased performance was observed in 51% of cases, mostly in females. To summarize, it is worth noting, that medical students, especially first-year students, often have psychological health problems.
The paper reports the issues of the medical assistance of students attending secondary medical educational institutions in Volgograd and the Volgograd region. It has been found that the regional regulatory documents contain no unified requirements related to students’ health protection. Primary medical care provision to students is ensured by pediatric (under the age of 18 years) and adult outpatient clinics (over the age of 18 years) of Volgograd and the Volgograd region in accordance with the concluded contracts. Furthermore, the students have a mandatory medical check-up before the beginning of practical training in accordance with the Order № 29N of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated January 28, 2021. At the same time, there is no dynamic monitoring of the students’ health status during the educational process. It has been shown that none of the secondary medical educational institutions of Volgograd and the Volgograd region conducts assessment and monitoring of occulational risk factors corresponding to the studied specialty. It is necessary to develop the system for informational communication of medical professional with medical institutions conducting preventive medical examinations and routine check-ups of students. Furthermore, it is important to consider the features of the chosen profession taking into account potential risk factors of the learning process and future professional activity.
It is difficult to overestimate the relevance of the study of the actual nutrition of students of higher education institutions, as nutrition is the most important component of healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to perform hygienic assessment of the medical university students’ daily dietary intake. The study involved 1200 students of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years at the department of general medicine, pediatric department and dental department. The method of studying actual nutrition with the help of an electronic food diary, where the subjects entered information about the foods consumed during the day, was chosen to record actual nutrition facts. Data processing showed that the daily nutritional intake of students at all the studied faculties was characterized by reduced caloric content, reduced intake of nutritional substances, lack of systematization of meals and eating mainly in the evening. Thus, hygienic assessment of the medical students’ daily dietary intake revealed shortcomings in the organization of nutrition of this population group, which should be eliminated in order to preserve and improve the health of future specialists. In subsequent studies, one would need to assess the nutrition of different gender groups in order to trace the emerging nutritional stereotypes in groups of young men and women, taking into account the differences in age and the chosen specialty.
The issue of organizing the teaching of hygiene considering specialization of the medical university faculties is relevant in the context of digitalization. Proficiency in digital skill determines the modern professional physician’s competitiveness. The paper provides analysis of the use of digital technologies to study the relevant issues of hygiene. Educational process at the Department of General Hygiene of the Voronezh State Medical University is built on the principle of uniformity and consistency. Professional educational trajectory, including that on digital platforms, considers the teaching continuity, from fundamental theoretical subjects to clinical and specialized ones. Within the framework of educational process, issues of special hygiene, such as specifics of structure and use of medical institutions, features of professional activity of physicians of various specialties, are considered. Conventional methods to teach hygiene are supplemented with the differentially used innovative teaching techniques. The business game method is successfully used by the future clinicians to master the topic “Food Poisoning”. The method of creating educational videos for visual demonstration of laboratory work can be used in distant learning. The digital learning method demonstrates the possibility of using advanced digital devices and internet-based technologies in preventive medicine. It seems necessary to further improve the educational process at all the faculties as educational and professional standards, as well as the academic passport for Hygiene, are updated.
It is well-known that investigation of the features of incidence among children and adolescents in certain human environment aimed at identification of promising prevention vectors in the region is a priority in the development of healthcare system and the state’s social policy. The study was aimed to explore the regional features of the pediatric population health in the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). A retrospective analytical study was conducted; the values and structure of incidence in children and adolescents in 11 FEFD regions were assessed. It was found that classes X (Diseases of the respiratory system) and XIX (Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes) occupied the leading places in the structure of the long-term average annual incidence by disease classes in FEFD among children aged 0–14 and adolescents aged 15–17. The lowest incidence was reported for class III (Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism). Significant differences in the long-term average annual levels of the studied indicator between age groups in FEFD and significant differences from the all-Russian values were revealed. The findings can be used to predict the health status of the younger generation and determine the strategic direction of healthcare system in the macroregion.
This article is a review of data published in Russian and foreign studies that reflect current problems concerning content of carbon dioxide in spaces of residential and public buildings, including children's educational organizations. We consider: mechanisms of action of high concentrations of carbon dioxide on the human body, which manifests as acute and delayed disruptions of metabolic processes in circulatory, central and respiratory systems; existing carbon dioxide content measurement methods used for indoor spaces; principles of setting microclimate and air quality standards for temporarily and constantly occupied indoor spaces and the respective parameter control principles. This analytical review revealed the need for standard-setting efforts, development and approval of a methodology enabling measurement of the actual carbon dioxide concentration in children's educational institutions, since routine measures adopted for the purpose lack in effectiveness or realization, which prevents normalization and stabilization of all qualitative and quantitative air parameters at the levels making the environment of a classroom safe and optimal for education-related activities given high occupancy of the space.