ISSN Print 2713-0878    ISSN Online 2713-0886
Russian Bulletin of Hygiene
BIOMEDICAL JOURNAL OF ERMC EASTERN EUROPEAN

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The biological factor is one of the leading adverse labor factors for medical workers. Establishing risk factors of exposure to COVID‑19 within this occupational group is a relevant hygienic task. The purpose of the study is to examine the morbidity in coronavirus among the emergency ward workers and determine risk factors of occupational infection. The morbidity rate of COVID‑19 among the emergency ward workers in Ryazan for 2020–2021 has been analyzed. The highest risk of COVID‑19 infection was established for medical workers of mobile teams. The infection risks for drivers and medical workers were comparable. Comparative analysis of COVID‑19 infection rates for drivers and employees of the ward not engaged in mobile teams confirms higher risks of infection of mobile team workers, including the ones who do not participate in provision of medical aid directly. High morbidity rates and statistically significant probability of a more severe course of the disease among mobile team medical workers as compared to drivers and employees not engaged in mobile teams are probably not accidental, and are due to a closer contact with a patient while providing medical aid and, as a consequence, a higher viral load that partially determines the disease severity. Emergency ward workers have a high occupational risk of exposure to COVID‑19 during the pandemic. Mobile team medical workers and drivers are at higher risk of developing the novel coronavirus infection. Emergency care mobile team medical personnel are subjected to the highest risk of a more severe course of the disease.
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The main task of any country associated with sanitary and epidemiological welfare of population is to obtain drinking water of good quality. In the majority of regions of the Russian Federation, quality of water taken from water sources and water supply systems is still unsatisfactory. As far as the extent of human impact on the environment goes, the Samara region is an ecologically unfavorable part of the Volga region. With the accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation, the problem of water supply here has been intensified and the question of whether the drinking water corresponds to Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.3685–21 and Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.3684–21 arose. The purpose of the study is to analyze quality of drinking water supply in the regions of the Russian Federation. Drinking water samples taken from the centralized domestic water supply system in the Samara urban district and Republic of Crimea were analyzed using 20 sanitary and chemical parameters. Quality of drinking water doesn’t correspond to the requirements for oil products in all samples; the average value of this parameter exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 0.18 mg/dm3 in the Samara urban district and by 0.04 mg/dm3 in the Republic of Crimea, all the other parameters were within normal limits. However, during the comparative analysis quality of drinking water in the Republic of Crimea was insignificantly better than in the Samara urban district. Quality of drinking water is determined with the source of drinking water supply (surface and underground). Thus, to make the prepared drinking water normal, a respective water treating is necessary. Bad condition of water supply pipes can also produce a negative impact on quality of water obtained by a consumer.
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To achieve high results in sports and preserve health, athletes need favorable conditions for a training process, accommodation and medical supply. The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary and hygienic condition and organization of a training process at a school of Olympic reserve. Objectives of the study included assessment of architectural and planning concepts for the school-related buildings and premises; examination of sanitary and hygienic condition of training rooms, sports facilities, hall of residence, parameters of air thermal and light regimen; assessment of how the training process is organized and developing the activities to correct the found violations. A hygienic assessment of training and athletic premises, physical factors, medical and pedagogical observation (two types of sports) is done in the trial. It has been established during the examination that no requirements to light furniture labeling, temperature and light regimen, regimen of cleaning and storage of cleaning utensils and sanitary condition of the hall of residence are followed. Training sessions are structured and specific as far as physical activity dynamics goes. By a number of parameters (selection and arrangement of premises, class timetable and equipment), favorable conditions for education and training are created at the school. The established violations of sanitary and hygienic conditions in the school-related premises and buildings can promote fatigue, injuries and infectious diseases. A more proper medical control over the sanitary conditions of education and residence at the school is required.
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Consumption of energy drinks by young people has been increased due to various reasons. The drinks have potentially harmful effects. The purpose was to examine the frequency of and reasons for energy drink consumption by medical students, subjectively assess health effects related to energy drinks, and analyze composition of energy drinks. 150 students of the Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko were interviewed to find out the effect produced by energy drinks on their performance, health and attitude to energy drinks using Google Forms. Methods of statistical analysis were utilized during the assessment. Four energy drink labels were selected and analyzed with their composition being described. Students’ health and adverse effects after consumption of the drinks underwent subjective assessment. 35% of those interviewed believe that energy drinks are effective. 70% of the students report increased performance after consumption of the drinks. However, 55% of them develop adverse effects such as tremor of the extremities (11.3%), increased excitability (20%), increased blood pressure (23.3%), heart arrhythmia (26%), allergic reactions (4%), and loss of consciousness (2%). A safe amount to be consumed (250 ml) is recommended after the analysis, whereas 60% of the respondents consume 450 ml. Every year energy drinks are gaining more and more popularity among young people. The found adverse effects of energy drinks require subsequent and a more elaborated examination.
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Students belong to a special medical and social group. A risk of health disturbances is typical of this community. It is associated with the influence of various habitat and educational factors. The most significant factors have been determined based on the analysis of literature data. It is about high levels of stress and depression due to low physical activity, high level of psychoemotional stress during lessons and examination periods, irrational and irregular nutrition, social adaptation to a new habitat, which is often accompanied by acclimatization while moving for educational purposes, disorders of sleep and rest, harmful habits. Significant areas of development of self-preserving technologies for students were determined based on the obtained data. They can include as follows: examination of morbidity risk factors due to the educational period (from the first to the last educational year), assessing the effect of weather and climate conditions on the educational territory (examining the process of students’ acclimatization), determining the role (peculiarities) of academic process technologies as a health risk factor (long-distance learning technologies, certain educational program), examining the progression and technology optimizing students’ way of life at different stages of education, assessment of physical activity, influence on accessibility of educational programs, significance of using electronic devices and educational means, feeding trends (ethnic ones, conditions and possibilities of adherence to the principles of healthy nutrition), etc.
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