ISSN Print 2713-0878    ISSN Online 2713-0886
Russian Bulletin of Hygiene

New articles

In modern society, smoking is one of the most common harmful habits. The issue of smoking among medical students and the ways to address it are particularly relevant. The study was aimed to identify the priority factors contributing to smoking as the main harmful habit. We performed a cross-sectional study of 254 students using the tailored questionnaire, D. Horn test, and Fagerstrom test. The data obtained were processed and analyzed using the mathematical statistics methods. The findings have shown that 68.4% of students are smokers. The majority of students report negative health effects of smoking: 45% of students complain of cough, 38% complain of mucus, 52% complain of the decrease in physical endurance. Furthermore, low motivation for smoking cessation has been revealed in the majority of respondents. Vaping turned out to be the smoking type most popular among students, and the majority of respondents believe that it is harmless. The identified predominant types of smoking behavior (“support”, “craving”) suggest emotional stress. The correlation between the students’ anxious emotional state and the frequency of smoking has been found (r = 0.79). Learning problems and emotional stress are the priority factors contributing to smoking as the main harmful habit of students. Thus, the issue of smoking should be considered both in medical-biological and socio-psychological aspects. It is important to shape health-saving behavior in students through hygienic training and education.
The information revolution and intensive development of electronic devices take place in the recent decades. Furthermore, not so long ago such a hygienic factor, as the display luminance pulse-width modulation (PWM) capable of causing visual discomfort (PWM symptoms) in individuals with increased sensitivity to visual load, has become relevant. The main complaints include eye pain, headache, sometimes nausea, up to the inability to use such screens. Moreover, this characteristic can be peculiar not only to LED (AMOLED, etc.), but also to IPS displays due to the presence of the LED backlight layer. No regulation of the issue has led to the emergence of online resources on PWM and the problem of visual impairment, where users verify the data on their own, which suggests the relevance of the subject selected. The paper reports theoretical aspects of PWM, technical characteristics of displays with PWM; the approaches to PWM measurement are described; the possible ways to reduce visual discomfort are discussed. Furthermore, the paper describes the method to measure PWM of displays using a photo camera with the exposure time set to 1/20 s, along with the method testing results. It has been shown that further research focused on assessing the effects of PWM on vision and the development of the method for hygienic assessment of monitors and smartphone screens with PWM are required.
Numerous studies conducted by domestic and foreign researchers report the influence of environmental pollution on shaping morbidity of a population. The study was aimed to rank the territories of the Voronezh Region by the incidence rates probably resulting from chemical pollution of atmospheric air, drinking water, soils in residential areas recorded in 2018–2022. The districts were divided into three groups based on the long-time annual average incidence rates. The degree of correlation between the disease entities and the chemical environmental factors was determined through correlation analysis. The findings have shown that the city of Voronezh and Pavlovsky District are the territories at risk of the disorders with the etiology that is likely to be associated with chemical air pollution. The territories at risk of the disorders that are likely to be associated with chemical pollution of drinking water include Kashirsky, Kantemirovsky, Olkhovatsky, Ternovsky, Khokholsky districts, while the territories at risk of the disorders that are likely to be associated with chemical pollution of soils in residential areas include the city of Voronezh, Borisoglebsky city district, Liskinsky and Rossoshansky districts. The situation observed in the above administrative territories requires in-depth study of the degree of the impact of chemical factors on public health and identification of the sources of these factors. The findings can be used to develop the guidelines on minimization of the adverse effects of chemical environmental factors on public health in the region.

Popular articles

This article is a review of data published in Russian and foreign studies that reflect current problems concerning content of carbon dioxide in spaces of residential and public buildings, including children's educational organizations. We consider: mechanisms of action of high concentrations of carbon dioxide on the human body, which manifests as acute and delayed disruptions of metabolic processes in circulatory, central and respiratory systems; existing carbon dioxide content measurement methods used for indoor spaces; principles of setting microclimate and air quality standards for temporarily and constantly occupied indoor spaces and the respective parameter control principles. This analytical review revealed the need for standard-setting efforts, development and approval of a methodology enabling measurement of the actual carbon dioxide concentration in children's educational institutions, since routine measures adopted for the purpose lack in effectiveness or realization, which prevents normalization and stabilization of all qualitative and quantitative air parameters at the levels making the environment of a classroom safe and optimal for education-related activities given high occupancy of the space.
Excess weight and obesity detected in adolescence are likely to be detected in adulthood, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The study was aimed to assess the features of cardiovascular system parameters in adolescent males considering their body mass index (BMI). For this purpose a total of 208 adolescent males aged 15–16 were surveyed. The major indicators of physical development and cardiovascular system function were evaluated by standard method. BMI was calculated, based on which three groups were distinguished: underweight adolescents, adolescents with normal and excess body weight. It was found that 23% of subjects were underweight, 62% had normal body weight, and excess body weight was reported in 15% of adolescents. It has been shown that the growth of strain on the cardiovascular system from the group of underweight adolescents to the group with excess weight is observed (4, 16, and 37%, respectively), which is confirmed by the correlation analysis results. The findings suggest the less effective cardiovascular system functioning mode in overweight adolescents compared to other assessed groups. The data obtained can be used to develop the guidelines on managing excess body weigth in the group of individuals being through the adolescent ontogeny period as a target group for health promotion and applying preventive measures.