ISSN Print 2713-0878    ISSN Online 2713-0886
Russian Bulletin of Hygiene

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It is well-known that investigation of the features of incidence among children and adolescents in certain human environment aimed at identification of promising prevention vectors in the region is a priority in the development of healthcare system and the state’s social policy. The study was aimed to explore the regional features of the pediatric population health in the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). A retrospective analytical study was conducted; the values and structure of incidence in children and adolescents in 11 FEFD regions were assessed. It was found that classes X (Diseases of the respiratory system) and XIX (Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes) occupied the leading places in the structure of the long-term average annual incidence by disease classes in FEFD among children aged 0–14 and adolescents aged 15–17. The lowest incidence was reported for class III (Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism). Significant differences in the long-term average annual levels of the studied indicator between age groups in FEFD and significant differences from the all-Russian values were revealed. The findings can be used to predict the health status of the younger generation and determine the strategic direction of healthcare system in the macroregion.
This article is a review of data published in Russian and foreign studies that reflect current problems concerning content of carbon dioxide in spaces of residential and public buildings, including children's educational organizations. We consider: mechanisms of action of high concentrations of carbon dioxide on the human body, which manifests as acute and delayed disruptions of metabolic processes in circulatory, central and respiratory systems; existing carbon dioxide content measurement methods used for indoor spaces; principles of setting microclimate and air quality standards for temporarily and constantly occupied indoor spaces and the respective parameter control principles. This analytical review revealed the need for standard-setting efforts, development and approval of a methodology enabling measurement of the actual carbon dioxide concentration in children's educational institutions, since routine measures adopted for the purpose lack in effectiveness or realization, which prevents normalization and stabilization of all qualitative and quantitative air parameters at the levels making the environment of a classroom safe and optimal for education-related activities given high occupancy of the space.
Excess weight and obesity detected in adolescence are likely to be detected in adulthood, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The study was aimed to assess the features of cardiovascular system parameters in adolescent males considering their body mass index (BMI). For this purpose a total of 208 adolescent males aged 15–16 were surveyed. The major indicators of physical development and cardiovascular system function were evaluated by standard method. BMI was calculated, based on which three groups were distinguished: underweight adolescents, adolescents with normal and excess body weight. It was found that 23% of subjects were underweight, 62% had normal body weight, and excess body weight was reported in 15% of adolescents. It has been shown that the growth of strain on the cardiovascular system from the group of underweight adolescents to the group with excess weight is observed (4, 16, and 37%, respectively), which is confirmed by the correlation analysis results. The findings suggest the less effective cardiovascular system functioning mode in overweight adolescents compared to other assessed groups. The data obtained can be used to develop the guidelines on managing excess body weigth in the group of individuals being through the adolescent ontogeny period as a target group for health promotion and applying preventive measures.
The paper provides the analysis of the research and practical work done at the Department of Hygiene, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, for the period between 2018 and 2023 aimed to determine the today’s directions of the Department and demonstrate their relevance, scientific and practical significance; prospective directions of further research are defined. Statistical data processing was performed using the Statistica 13 PL software and the tag (word) cloud service. Staff of the Department did extensive educational and methodological, organizational and methodological, expert and consulting, research work (paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 of the academic passport for the specialty 3.2.1. “Hygiene”); a total of 10 textbooks and three toolkits, three guidelines, two software products, one patent for invention and 39 database certificates, 11 collective monographs were published; two hygienic standards were approved; the activity outcomes were presented during 95 scientific and practical events, including that with international involvement. A total of 150 articles were published: 46 in the journals indexed in international databases (Scopus, Web of Science), 58 in the journals indexed by HAC under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, one in the Nature journal. Two candidate and two doctoral theses on the specialty 3.2.1. “Hygiene” were prepared and defended. The activity outcomes provided helped to address the hygienic challenges currently faced by professional community to achieve the national goals of the Russian Federation in the fields of demography, public health and digitalization.

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Healthy lifestyle formation is one of the tasks of the hygiene education of children, adolescents and young adults. That is why it is necessary for educational institutions to implement the technologies focused on health preservation in students. The study was aimed to develop and test the technology for hygiene training of students. In 2017–2019 we tested the “Habit Trackers – Checklists” technology in dynamics within the framework of the hygiene training of schoolchildren in the Moscow and Astrakhan regions, and in 2021–2023 the technology was tested for college and university students. A total of 502 schoolchildren, 234 college students, and 429 university students were enrolled. In educational institutions, where the hygiene training program was implemented, the number of schoolchildren with the diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue decreased by 1.4 times, and the number of students with eye diseases decreased by 2.6 times compared to other educational institutions of the Astrakhan region. Later, when the technology was tested for college and university students, the number of students having medium and high levels of physical activity increased from 46.0% (before the hygiene training) to 72.0% (after the hygiene training). The findings allow us to recommend replicating the proposed hygiene training program in educational institutions.
2022-12-26 Our news

December 26, 2022 marks the 60th anniversary of the birth of Prof. Dmitry B. Nikityuk, Director of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Safety of Food, an outstanding Russian Scholar, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Doctor of Medicine.