ISSN Print 2713-0878    ISSN Online 2713-0886
Russian Bulletin of Hygiene

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Studying nutrition patterns in children remains relevant for analysis of nutritional status in the population, including children. Child nutrition is considered the environmental factor that eventually defines the child’s health status and life expectancy. The large scale commercial market of adapted and partially adapted milk formulas for bottle feeding usually encourages mothers to refuse to breastfeed and transfer their babies to bottle feeding, which could be unsafe for the child. Supplementary and complementary foods could contain various foreign substances, which could increase chemical load on the growing child’s body by means of the consumed food products. The study was aimed to assess nutrition patterns in infants based on the questionnaire survey of 600 mothers in various healthcare institutions and to evaluate chemical contamination of the products for bottle feeding/supplementary feeding of infants, as well as of complementary foods based on the data acquired by the Federal Information Fund for Social and Hygienic Monitoring of the Russian Federation in 65 federal subjects in 2012–2017. The data obtained were processed using the Microsoft Word 2010 and Microsoft Excel 2010 software. It has been found that 37.3% infants are breastfed, 62.7% of infants are bottle-fed or supplemented. In 74.7% of cases complementary foods are introduced at the age of 4–6 months. Fruit and vegetable products are most commonly used as first complementary foods, after which cereal foods (cereal mixes) and canned meat are introduced. These types of food products have the highest concentrations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury).
In modern school education, a system, developing high academic loads among schoolchildren, is being formed. The loads pose a serious problem, creating inevitable medical consequences, and producing a negative effect on the morbidity and structure of the pathology for this group of children and adolescents. Given the situation, control over the academic load, its rational distribution and initiating supervision over the academic process intensity are relevant. Basic negative factors of academic process organization were found in the course of academic schedule analysis in 1.728 classes and estimating the academic process intensity during 3.500 lessons. The maximum non-conformities to hygienic standards were found in high school students from cities. It was established that a weekly academic load was exceeded after school owing to extended learning activities, and irrational distribution of a weekly academic load because of difficult subjects. Intellectual, sensory and emotional loads were the leading criteria of an intense academic process. Highly intense academic load was noted for such school subjects as Russian, Algebra, Foreign language, Chemistry and Geometry. The same subjects are taught in different major classes with a various degree of intensity. This required scored correction of how difficult the subjects are in senior major classes.
The number of research papers about the impact electronic devices produce on the younger generation that uses them is constantly growing. This study aimed to identify the leading hearing loss risk factors for children, adolescents and youth associated with use of mobile electronic devices with headphones In the 2017–2021 academic years, we surveyed 518 students in Moscow and 1000 schoolchildren and students in the towns of Izhevsk and Tchaikovsky. The survey was designed to collect data on the conditions in which the respondents use mobile electronic devices with headphones, design features of the headphones used and their hearing health status. The inclusion criteria were: status of a schoolchild, student, signed and submitted informed consent form, questionnaire correctly completed by the respondent or his/her legal representative, one or more years of using mobile electronic devices. The conducted study does not endanger the participants and complies with the biomedical ethics requirements. Statistica 13 PL software was used for statistical processing of the data collected. Fourteen percent of the respondents reported hearing deterioration in the course of the last year. Prolonged use of mobile electronic devices with headphones increases the risk of hearing loss by 10.4 times, listening to audio files at maximum volume — by 3.2 times, listening to audio files while in a moving vehicle — by 7.1 times. Most schoolchildren and students with hearing impairments have been using headphones for at least a year, preferred in-ear headphones with silicone tips, used them at maximum volume daily, for more than two hours a day, including while in a moving vehicle. The recommendations for students and schoolchildren is to limit the time of use of their electronic devices with headphones and use them at a lower volume; complying with the recommendations can improve the functional state of their health. It is also recommended not to use headphones while in a moving vehicle. If hearing begins deteriorating, it is necessary to cease using mobile electronic devices with headphones. Today, schoolchildren and students are exposed to the hearing impairment risks associated with use of mobile electronic devices with headphones, which makes the search for the most efficient ways of forming healthy lifestyle habits among them even more urgent.
Analysis of physical development in children and adolescents is an integral to the monitoring of child population. Health status of children and adolescents is an essential criterion of societal welfare. Numerous studies of physical development in children indicate the heterogenous nature of growth and develpmental processes in children living in various regions of Russia. The study was aimed to perform the comparative analysis of physical development between children aged 15–17 living in Samara (a total of 714 children were examined, among them 368 boys and 346 girls) and children of the same age group living in Nizhny Novgorod (a total of 689 children, among them 351 boys and 338 girls). In school students aged 16–17, significant differences in the mean height were revealed: adolescents living in Samara were taller than those living in Nizhny Novgorod (p = 0.001). The same trend was observed in girls of the same age group. Comparative analysis showed that girls aged 15–17 living in Samara were significantly taller (p < 0.001) than girls who lived in Nizhny Novgorod. Assessment of body weight showed that the weight of boys aged 15–16 who lived in Samara was significantly higher compared to boys living in Nizhny Novgorod (p = 0.009). No significant differences were revealed between the groups of 17‑year‑old boys and the groups of girls aged 15–17 (р = 0.7). The findings on the differences in the anthropometric indicators of children living in Samara and Nizhny Novgorod justify the need for periodic development and use in healthcare practice of the regional standards for assessment of physical development in children and adolescents.

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Social factors such as bad living conditions, harmful labor conditions, low quality of medicine, loss of social contacts, etc., and lifestyle factors such as mal- and over-nutrition, hypodynamia, bad habits, etc. are the main issues of premature ageing. In this article, the alimentary factor such as the risk of premature ageing has been considered from the point of view of over- and malnutrition (protein-e nergy undernutrition) and its influence on the rate of ageing. The effect of overnutrition has been examined in the literature review of Russian and foreign investigators. Scientific publications show that one alimentary factor can be used to produce a significant influence on life span and frequency of some degenerative diseases. The relationship between malnutrition in the older population and biological age has been evaluated. 408 those surveyed from the city of Voronezh aged 55 to 70 were included into the study. The examination was nonrecurrent. The biological age of those surveyed was determined using the method by V. P. Voitenko. Malnutrition was assessed with the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) tool. Malnutrition is observed among 2.2% of elderly patients, 58.8% of those surveyed are at risk for malnutrition, whereas 39% of them have a normal alimentary status. It is established that the biological age is correlated with the alimentary status. Statistically significant differences are found in the mean group values of the biological age in the subgroup of people with a normal alimentary status in relation to the subgroup of people with a risk for malnutrition (p<0.05): the values were 56±1.7 and 64±1.4, respectively. The publication shows a direct and indirect influence of the alimentary status (both overnutrition, and malnutrition) on the rate of senescence.
The article reviews the issues of career counseling for adolescents with health problems. Goal. Show the possibilities and share the experience of providing career advice with focus on health to adolescents with health problems in the settings of primary health care establishments. Patients and methods. Nine hundred forty schoolchildren were counseled in the career advice room. The participants were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — participants with disabilities since early childhood, group 2 — children with chronic diseases, group 3 — children at risk of developing chronic diseases. The inclusion criteria were: status of a schoolchild, signed and submitted informed consent form, lack of exposure to occupational hazards. The conducted study does not endanger the participants and complies with the biomedical ethics requirements. Statistica 10.0 software was used for statistical processing of the data collected. Based on the results of this work and review of the relevant publications, authors of the study suggest a structure of the health- centric career advice service. Conclusions Career advice that factors in health aspects is an important link in medical and psychological rehabilitation aimed at helping the teenager to adapt to current socio-e conomic conditions and realize his/her physical and intellectual capabilities.